Modes of Data Communication

Modes of Data Communication

This tutorial will cover data communication methods and their various types.

What is data transmission?

If you move from one place to another for any purpose, that is considered transmission.

The process of transmitting data from one location to another is referred to as data transmission.

Theoretically, we would understand it as follows:

  • A data communication mode is a link or a set of rules that govern how data is sent from one location to another.
  • Another name for the Communication mode is the Transmission mode.
  • These modes control how information flows in a certain direction.

Transmission modes can be divided into three categories.

  • Simplex Mode
  • Half-duplex Mode
  • Full duplex Mode
Modes Of Data Communication
Modes Of Data Communication

Simplex Mode

  • Simplex Mode=Unidirectional means in only one direction
  • Simplex transmission mode: Only one direction of data transmission
  • Simplex mode indicates one-way communication.
  • Data only flows in one direction during communication in the simplex mode.
  • Computer A=Only Send data But not receive
  • Similarly,
  • Computer B= Receives data but does not send
simplex mode of communication
simplex mode of communication

Real-life examples of Simplex Mode

First Example

When a user uses a computer, he has an input device called a keyboard.

 The keyboard mode of transmission falls under the category of simplex mode because when the user uses it, he only gives instructions to it at a time i.e. the keyboard only takes instructions from the user.

2nd Example

A monitor is an output device that gives the user any kind of information. Other than this, the monitor simply serves to output information to the user; it

Real Life Examples of Simplex Mode of communication
Real Life Examples of Simplex Mode of communication

Half Duplex Mode

  • Each station can send and receive in half-duplex mode, but not at the same time.
  • Computer A is sending data & Computer B only Receives data and vice versa
  • When immediate communication in both directions is not needed, the half-duplex mode is used.
half duplex data transmission
half duplex data transmission

Real-life examples of Half Duplex Mode

1st Example

Examples of half-duplex mode include walkie-talkies. While the other party listens, one side uses a walkie-talkie to communicate. After a pause, the other speaks as the first party listens. When two people speak at once, the outcome will be a muddled sound that is tough to understand.

And we can use the second, most basic example of this.

2nd Example

Browsing the internet (requests and responses)

When a user uses any Internet browser, the user first sends a request, then the browser makes a response based on this request. For example, when someone uses Google Chrome and searches for “Modes of Data Communication,” Google Search responds with information that is relevant to the topic and is now the most popular search engine, contributing to the user’s access to a variety of information.

Real Life Examples of Half-Duplex Mode

Full Duplex Mode

  • Full Duplex mode= is Bi-directional
  • Bi-Directional means both side Flows
  • In a Full duplex System, Data send Both directions at the same time because it is a bi-directional system
  • A telephone network where two persons can talk and listen to each other at the same time via a phone line is an example of a full-duplex system.
  • Two lines, one for sending data and the other for receiving data, may be included in a complete duplex system.
Full Duplex mode of communication
Full Duplex mode of communication

Real-life examples of Full Duplex Mode

First Example

Through a Skype video conference or video call, two people can communicate and respond to one another simultaneously.

2nd Example

The most straightforward and straightforward example is audio calls. Mobile phones operate in full duplex mode, so we can start speaking to the person we choose as soon as the call is connected. Both users can hear the dialogue at the same time, and you can respond to it.

Real Life examples of a Full Duplex Mode
Real Life examples of a Full Duplex Mode

Advantages of full duplex mode:

Computer A & Computer B send & received data at the same time

The drawback of using full-duplex mode is:

When there isn’t a dedicated path between the devices, the communication channel capacity is split in half.

Understanding data transmission and the various ways by which a computer sends and receives data is essential before understanding asynchronous and synchronous communication

Data transmission

  • In a computer system, data must be transmitted between devices.
  • Bits are used to send data via a network.
  • A single character represented by an 8-bit byte will therefore be transmitted in 8 pieces, one signal per bit.

Serial Data Transmission

  • With only one wire, one bit is transferred at a time.
  • the transmission of 01101101, for example.
  • With a data transport rate of 1000Mbs per second, fiber-optic cable is an example of an extremely high data transfer rate.
Serial data Transmission
Serial data Transmission

Advantages of using a serial transmission mode

  • Due to its dependability, it can be utilized for long-distance data transmission.
  • Less complexity and cables are used.
  • It is affordable.

Disadvantages of using a serial transmission mode

  • Because there is only one transmission path, the data transmission rate is low.

Parallel Data Transmission

  • simultaneous transmission of bits over multiple wires.
  • usually, 8 so that an entire byte can be delivered at once. typically 8 so that an entire byte can be delivered at once.
  • Short-distance communication is its fundamental use.
  • N-transmission lines are required for N bits. 
  • As a result, network complexity rises while transmission speed remains high.
  • The signal quality may be impacted by interference in the data if two or more transmission lines are too close to one another.

Advantages of using a parallel transmission mode

  • It is simple to implement or system.
  • The n-transmission channel allows for fast data transmission.
Parallel Data Transmission
Parallel Data Transmission

Disadvantages of using a parallel transmission mode

  • Because more transmission channels are needed, it is not cost-effective.
  • interfering with data bits and video conferences.

Firstly we understand the meanings of Synchronous and Asynchronous

When two devices are ready for a task at the same time or at the same speed then in computer terms we call them synchronized devices.

There are two types of serial transmission:

  1.  Synchronous data transmission
  2. Asynchronous data transmission
Types of Serial data transmission
Types of Serial data transmission

Real Life Example of Synchronous

Two friends made a plan to go from Multan to Faisalabad.

 Both of them matched the time exactly on their risk watches and it was decided that both of them will leave for the station from their respective homes at exactly eight o’clock.

 Now, since both the friends had set exactly the same time in Risk watches, so based on this Risk watch, they will do the same thing at the same time, so we can say that both friends are synchronized.

When two devices are ready for a task at the same time or at the same speed then in computer terms we call them synchronized devices.

Synchronous Data Transmission

  • When two devices are synchronized for data transmission, meaning one is ready to send data and the other is ready to receive data at the same time, this type of transmission is known as synchronous transmission.
  • Each bit is supplied individually.
  • block by block (means block by block)
  • Many characters can fit inside a single block.
  • When the data arrive, it is the recipient’s obligation to count, sort, and group them appropriately.
  • There is no start and stop bits used.
  • The operating frequency is shared by the transmitter and receivers.
Synchronous Data Transmission
Synchronous Data Transmission

Advantages of Synchronous transmission

  • High Speed: Compared to asynchronous transmission, the speed of transmission is much higher.
  • This is because there are no gaps or start/stop bits between the data units.
  • Synchronization reduces timing mistakes.

Disadvantages of Synchronous Transmission

  • The timing is very important. The receiver’s capacity to accurately count the bits it receives determines how accurate the data it receives is.
  • The clock frequencies of the transmitter and receiver must match.
  • The system is complicated because this calls for correct synchronization.

Real Life Example of Asynchronous

Asynchronous For this we will use our previous example and assume that the two friends have planned to go on a trip but instead of matching the time on their watches, the decision has been made.

That one friend will notify the other friend through SMS before leaving the house and as soon as the SMS is received the other friend will leave the house.

In this scenario, one friend will have to wait for the other friend’s SMS and leave the house only after receiving the SMS.

The asynchronous transmission also works in the same way i.e. the devices are not synchronized with each other.

Asynchronous Data Transmission

  • Transmit data character by character.
  • Add 0 to the beginning bit and 1 to the ending bit.
  • also include the gaps between data.
  • Mostly work on byte level.
  • The start of communication is indicated by a 0 bit, while the end is indicated by a 1.
  • The transmitter and receiver may use several clock frequencies to function.
Asynchronous data transmission

Advantages of Asynchronous transmission

  • It is a flexible mode of data transmission.
  • There is no requirement for synchronization between the transmitter and receiver.
  • Signals coming from sources with various bit rates can be sent.
  • As soon as the first available data byte is available for transmission, the transmission can start.
  • It is simple to implement this transmission method.
  • It works well as a plan.
  • In terms of money, it is an inexpensive plan.

Disadvantages of Asynchronous Transmission

  • Start and stop bits, which are additional bits, must be used.
  • It is possible that the timing issue occurred because it is challenging to establish synchrony.
  • It transmits information more slowly.

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