Project Method of Teaching –  Advantages and Disadvantages

Welcome to our tutorial on the Project Method of Teaching. This modern and student-centered approach to education emphasizes “learning by doing” and places students at the center of the learning process.

We will not only discuss the principles and benefits of this method but also delve into the specific approach developed by Dr. W.H. Kilpatrick, known as the Kilpatrick Project Method. Whether you are a student, teacher, or educational professional, this tutorial will provide valuable insights and information on this innovative teaching strategy.

So, Let’s dive into the world of the Project Method of Teaching and Kilpatrick’s approach.

Project Method of Teaching has a rich historical background dating back to the early 20th century. It is said to have originated at Richards Colombia University in 1900 and was later popularized by Stevenson J. A who used the term in 1908. The Massachusetts State Board of Education officially recognized the method in 1911, and it gained further momentum when Professor W.H. Kilpatrick of Colombia University made a formal attempt to use it in education in 1918.

The Project Method of Teaching is based on John Dewey’s philosophy of pragmatism, which emphasizes the principle of “learning by doing.” Dewey believed that students should be actively engaged in their own learning and that education should be relevant to student’s lives and experiences. The Project Method of Teaching aligns with this philosophy by providing students with hands-on, real-world projects and activities that allow them to apply what they are learning.

Introduction: Project Method of Teaching

Project Method of Teaching

Perennialism is a teaching philosophy that values the memorization and recall of key facts and information. This approach is based on the belief that certain knowledge is timeless and universal, and should be the foundation of education.

This method of teaching is often associated with traditional methods, where students are expected to read, memorize, and reproduce information through drilling and repetition. Although this method can aid in short-term memory retention, it can fall short in terms of promoting deep understanding and critical thinking skills.

On the other hand, the Project Method of Teaching is a modern and student-centered approach that emphasizes learning by doing.

It is based on the philosophy of pragmatism and the principle of “Learning by Doing”. This approach encourages students to actively engage in hands-on, real-world projects and activities that are relevant to their lives and experiences.

The focus is on critical thinking, problem-solving, and active engagement, rather than just memorization. This approach not only helps students to develop important skills but also provides them with a deeper understanding and retention of the material. It is an effective method to change the behavior of students by providing them with practical engagement and involvement in their studies.


A project is a purposeful and meaningful activity that is undertaken in a social setting. It is a real-world task that is brought into the classroom and requires students to use critical thinking, problem-solving, and constructive effort to achieve specific objectives and results. It is a voluntary undertaking that provides students with an authentic and engaging learning experience.


Project Method of teaching = Active Engagement + Real-world Projects + Problem-solving + Understanding + Student-centered approach + Philosophy of pragmatism + Learning by Doing.


The Project Method of Teaching is an approach that emphasizes “learning by doing” and places students at the center of the learning process.

Learning by Doing = Active Engagement + Real-world Experience + Critical Thinking + Problem-solving + Understanding 

Importance of Project Method of Teaching with Example:

The Project Method of Teaching is a vital teaching strategy because it enables students to take responsibility for their education and actively participate in the subject matter.

The idea behind it is “learning by doing,” which is a potent strategy for helping kids comprehend and remember new material. With this method, students can work on projects and activities from the real world that is pertinent to their lives and experiences, giving them greater knowledge and connection to the subject.

Real Life Example of Project Method of Teaching

A real-life example of the Project Method of Teaching computer science would be a class taught by teacher Noman where student Hamza is tasked with creating a mobile application. Teacher Noman provides guidance on the technical aspects of app development such as programming languages, software development kits, and interface design. However, student Hamza is responsible for the entire project, from conceptualizing the idea to designing the user interface to coding the app.

Through this process, student Hamza learns about software development and design, problem-solving, and project management. He develops the skills of coding and designing a user interface. Additionally, student Hamza is encouraged to be creative and think outside the box, as he comes up with a unique idea for his app and works to bring it to life. The project also allows student Hamza to learn about the end-to-end process of software development, from the initial concept to the final product.

What are the types of project methods of teaching?

Types of Project Method of Teaching

There are 4 types of projects that Dr. W.H. Kilpatrick has classified in his paper on “The Project Method”.

Constructive project:

This type of project involves practical or physical tasks such as building an object, creating a model, digging a well, or performing a drama. It helps students to develop their hands-on skills and manual dexterity.

Constructive project = Hands-on skills + Manual Dexterity

Aesthetic project:

This type of project focuses on developing the students’ appreciation skills through activities such as musical programs, beautification projects, and the appreciation of poetry.

Aesthetic project = Appreciation skills + Creative expression

Problematic project:

This type of project helps students to develop their problem-solving skills through experiences. It is based on the cognitive domain and allows students to apply critical thinking and reasoning skills.

Problematic project = Problem-solving skills + Critical thinking

Drill project:

 This type of project is designed to help students master a skill or knowledge. It increases the work efficiency and capacity of the students. It is based on the repetition of a certain task or activity to master it.

Drill project = Mastery of skill + Work efficiency

What are the steps of the project method?

Steps of Project method

The Project Method consists of six steps, including:

Creating a situation:

The teacher creates a situation that is relevant and meaningful to the students.

Selection of the problem:

The teacher helps the students to select a problem or topic of interest, based on their interests and abilities.


The teacher and students work together to develop a step-by-step plan for the project.


The students carry out the project, collecting information and materials as needed. The teacher provides supervision and guidance.


The students evaluate their work and share their thoughts and feelings about the project.

Reporting and Recording:

The students document the process and results of the project and present it to the teacher for review.

Overall Step of Project Method = Situation Creation + Problem Selection + Planning + Execution + Evaluation + Reporting and Recording

Role of the Teacher In Project Method of Teaching:-

In the Project Method of teaching, the role of the teacher is crucial in guiding, facilitating, and supporting students in their learning journey. Some key roles of a teacher in this method include:

Facilitator: The teacher acts as a facilitator, guiding and supporting students as they work on their projects. They provide resources, answer questions, and offer feedback to help students stay on track and make progress.

Mentor: The teacher serves as a mentor, offering guidance and advice to students as they work through the project. They help students to identify and overcome any challenges they may face and provide support and encouragement as needed.

Assessor: The teacher assesses student progress, providing feedback and evaluations to help students understand their strengths and weaknesses. They help students to understand what they have learned and what they need to work on.

Resource provider: The teacher provides students with the necessary resources and materials to complete their projects, including books, equipment, and technology. They help students to access the information and tools they need to succeed.

Collaborator: The teacher works closely with students, collaborating with them to develop and implement project plans and goals. They help students to understand how their work contributes to the overall project and to the class as a whole.

Encourager: The teacher encourages students to take ownership of their learning, providing support and guidance to help them to achieve their goals. They help students to develop self-motivation, self-direction, and self-evaluation skills.

Overall, the teacher plays a vital role in guiding and supporting students in the Project Method of teaching, helping them to develop the skills and knowledge they need to succeed.

Guidelines for Effective Project Method of Teaching:

  1. The project’s aims and objectives should be made very clear.
  2. Encourage student participation and teamwork
  3. Provide guidance and support
  4. Encourage creativity and innovation
  5. Provide feedback and evaluation
  6. Encourage reflection and self-evaluation
  7. Provide opportunities for students to share their work
  8. Create a positive and supportive learning environment

Advantages of Project Method of Teaching:-

Project Method of teaching has a number of advantages that make it an effective teaching strategy. Some of the key advantages include:

Hands-on, active learning:

Students are able to apply their knowledge and skills in real-life situations, making the learning experience more engaging and meaningful.

Connections to the Real World:

Projects are often based on real-world problems and issues, helping students to see the relevance and importance of what they are learning.

Developing Critical Thinking Skills:

Projects require students to analyze, evaluate, and create solutions to problems, helping them to develop critical thinking skills.


Projects can be tailored to the requirements and interests of individual students and can be adapted to a wide range of courses.


Students frequently have to work together on projects, which promotes teamwork and social skills.

Increased Motivation and Engagement:

 Projects allow students to take ownership of their learning, increasing their motivation and engagement in the learning process.

Personalized Learning:

Projects can be designed to meet the needs and interests of individual students, allowing for personalized learning experiences.

Disadvantages of Project Method of Teaching

The Project Method of teaching has some downsides even if it is quite effective at encouraging hands-on learning and critical thinking. These include:

Time and resource constraints:

Projects often require significant time and resources, which may not be readily available in all educational settings.

Insufficient teacher control

It can be challenging for teachers to retain control of the classroom and make sure that all pupils are paying attention when they are controlling the path of their own learning.

Assessment challenge:

Assessing student understanding and progress in a project-based learning environment can be challenging, as traditional methods of assessment may not always be appropriate.

Possibility of unequal involvement

While some students could be more ready to assume leadership roles in a project, others might be more cautious. This may result in inconsistent participation and a lack of interest on the part of some students.

The complexity of organizing and managing projects:

Managing a project requires a significant amount of planning, organization, and coordination. This can be a daunting task for both teachers and students, especially for those without experience in project management.

Failure Probability:

Since project-based learning is an active learning method, failure is a possibility. The project may not be finished effectively by the students, or they may not get the anticipated result.

Wrap Up

In summary, the Project Method of Teaching is an effective modern teaching method that prioritizes student engagement and hands-on learning experiences. It has a rich historical background, rooted in the philosophy of pragmatism and the principle of “learning by doing.”

This method allows students to take ownership of their education and apply critical thinking and problem-solving skills to real-world projects. The Project Method of Teaching is a great way to promote understanding and retention of material, as well as to change student behavior through practical engagement and involvement. Overall, it is a powerful teaching strategy that can be applied to various subjects and disciplines, including computer science.

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