Addressing in Data Communication

Need For Addressing

A packet is a unit of data sent from one device to another. It requires its destination address just like we write the address on an envelope while sending a letter. An application running on the recipient side accepts packets and assembles them to show meaningful information. If there is more than one application ready to accept a packet, then a number called port number distinguishes the targeted application from the other applications. So, proper addressing is required for reliable data transfer.

Addressing in Data Communication

  • The source must be aware of the receiver’s address before sending a message.
  • A network’s devices require addresses in order to communicate with one another.
  • Giving a message an address is the first stage, and sending the packet to the targeted recipients is the second.

Mapping between Telephone and Network Addressing

Let’s say you want to call your girlfriend on the phone. You must be aware of the exact cellphone address, which is also your girlfriend’s phone number before you contact her.

On the internet, the telephone number corresponds to an IP address( Internet Protocol). Like a telephone number, all IP addresses are unique. Each device gets its own unique IP address when it gets connected to the Internet.

If an IP address of a device is fixed in a network, it is called a static IP address. Otherwise if each time a new connection is made a new IP address is assigned, it is called a dynamic IP address.

What is an IP address with Full Explanation

The IP address will be thoroughly covered throughout the tutorial and all the essential details from an exam standpoint.

  • IP address stands for “Internet Protocol address”.
  • An IP address is a numerical designation that is provided to a physical device.
  • For instance, every device, whether it be a mobile, laptop, or personal computer, has a unique IP address.

Let’s now discuss the variety of addressing schemes that exist on the Internet.

Types of Addressing in Data communication and Networking

The IP addressing protocols IPv4 and IPv6 are the two standards currently in use.

Versions of IP Address

When the Internet Protocol was originally designed, the standard known as Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)).

Example of of IPV4 Address
  • As shown in the above example, IPv4 is divided into four groups separated by “.” where each group can contain a decimal value from 0 to 255.
  • If we convert 255 base decimal to binary so our conversion is equal to (255)10= (11111111)2.
  • It shows that a maximum of 8 bits is required for every group of IPv4 as shown in the example.
  • So, in total 32 bits are required to store the whole IP address in IPv4 Standard.

Example of ipv6 address

Example of of IPV6 Address

Due to more and more devices connecting to the Internet, IPv4 addresses are running out. To accommodate the increase in devices, another standard of IP addressing is introduced called Internet Protocol Version (IPv6).

  • It consists of 128 bits.
  • In IPv6, there are 8 groups separated by ‘:’ as shown in the above example.
  • Each Group can contain 4 Hexadecimal digits. To store one hexadecimal digit, we need 4 bits. So, for a group in IPv6, we need 16 bits, and for 8 groups total of 128 bits are required.
  • 1 Hexadecimal digit requires 4 bits
  • 4 Hexadecimal digit requires 16 bits=4×4
  • 1 Group has 4 Hexadecimal digits, so each group requires 4×4=16 bits
  • 8 groups require 8×16=128 bits.

Even while IPv4 is still in use today and provides about 4 billion addresses, the quantity is fewer than the world’s population as we also know that many people nowadays have multiple devices connected to the internet at once.

IPv6 can allow up to 2^128 addresses which are 3.5 trillion times more than the number of addresses in IPv4.

Uses of IP Address

A private IP address and a public IP address are the two ways that an IP address can be utilized.

An IP address used privately between two devices is known as a private IP address.

For instance, if a person wishes to share data between his two mobile devices, he will use a private IP address.

That means that nobody other will have access to them.

Basically, we access the Internet through a public IP address, which is given to us by the Internet Service Provider (ISP).

When you conduct a search online, our router first verifies the IP address that made the request before transmitting the outcomes to our IP address.

You utilize a public IP address to establish a connection to the internet.

And we utilize private IP addresses just for personal work and data sharing.

The five classes that make up an IP address are class A, class B, class C, class D, and class E, respectively.

Classes of IP address
Classes of IP address

We must examine the first octet if we want to determine the class. The first byte of the IP address can be used to determine the class IP address, for example, if the range of our class IP is 0 to 126.

There is a suitable range of IP addresses for each of these classes.

  • Class D > Used for Multicasting.
  • Class E > Used For Research

The classes of IP addresses are determined by the bit order in the first octet.

The IPv4 address is divided into two parts:

  • Network ID
  • Host ID

Class A

  • Class A IP address is used for a Large Number of Hosts.
  • 1st 8 bits are called the 1st octet
  • 1st octet identifies the network and the remaining 24-bits identify the Host


 An IP Address

  •  “125”             >          Help You identify the Network
  •  255.23.17     >           Help you identify the Host

Class B

  • Range of Class B IP addresses: 128 to 191
  • For local machine loopback testing, the number 127 is set aside.
  • The first 16 bits are known as the “two octets.”
  • The network is identified by two octets, and the host is identified by the remaining 16 bits.


  •  An IP Address
  •  191.23 >Help You identify the Network
  •   28.144 >Assist you in determining the Hut network Host

Class C

  • Small networks normally make use of Class C IP addresses.
  • Range of Class B IP addresses: 192 to 223

Class D

  • Only programs that require multicasting use Class D addresses. Never is Class D used for standard networking operations.
  • Range of Class B IP addresses: 224 to 239

Class E

  • The use of the reserved E class has never been defined.
  • Range of Class B IP addresses: 240 to 255

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